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Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Gorbachev

Full Name Mikhail Gorbachev
Date of Birth March 2, 1931
Age 93 years, 0 months, 19 days
Birthplace Privolnoye
Birth City Stavropol Krai
Country Russia
Horoscope Pisces

Mikhail Gorbachev Birthday Countdown

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Explore Mikhail Gorbachev net worth, age, height, bio, birthday, wiki, and salary! In this article, we will discover how old is Mikhail Gorbachev? Who is Mikhail Gorbachev dating now & how much money does Mikhail Gorbachev have?

Mikhail Gorbachev Biography

Mikhail Gorbachev is one of the most popular and richest World Leader who was born on March 2, 1931 in Privolnoye, Stavropol Krai, Russia. He was the last Soviet Union leader to oversee the end of Cold War and the dissolution in 1991 of the Soviet Union. His perestroika (“restructuring”) policy irrevocably altered the course of Russian history.

He had close relationships with many Western leaders, including President He formed close connections with various Western leaders, including U.S. President Ronald Reagan..

In September 1953, he married Raisa Titarenko; they had one child, Irina.

NameMikhail Gorbachev
First NameMikhail
Last NameGorbachev
OccupationWorld Leader
BirthdayMarch 2
Birth Year1931
Place of BirthPrivolnoye
Home TownStavropol Krai
Birth CountryRussia
Birth SignPisces
Full/Birth Name
FatherNot Available
MotherNot Available
SiblingsNot Available
SpouseRaisa Gorbacheva (m. 1953–1999)
Children(s)Not Available

Ethnicity, religion & political views

Many peoples want to know what is Mikhail Gorbachev ethnicity, nationality, Ancestry & Race? Let's check it out! As per public resource, IMDb & Wikipedia, Mikhail Gorbachev's ethnicity is Not Known. We will update Mikhail Gorbachev's religion & political views in this article. Please check the article again after few days.

Mikhail Gorbachev Net Worth

Mikhail Gorbachev is one of the richest World Leader from Russia. According to our analysis, Wikipedia, Forbes & Business Insider, Mikhail Gorbachev's net worth $5 Million.* (Last Update: February 3, 2024)

As a teenager, he worked on large farms with combine harvesters.

He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 and the Harvey Prize for 1992, along with several honorary doctorates.

Net Worth (2024)$5 Million
Net Worth in 2023$5 Million
SalaryUnder Review
Source of IncomeWorld Leader
CarsNot Available
HouseLiving in own house.
N.B: * means unconfirmed

Mikhail Gorbachev's Height & Physical Stats

Mikhail Gorbachev height 5 ft 9 in Mikhail weight Not Known & body measurements will update soon.

Height5 ft 9 in
WeightNot Known
Body MeasurementsUnder Review
Eye ColorNot Available
Hair ColorNot Available
Feet/Shoe SizeNot Available

Who is Mikhail Gorbachev Dating?

According to our records, Mikhail Gorbachev married to Raisa Gorbacheva (m. 1953–1999). As of February 1, 2024, Mikhail Gorbachev’s is not dating anyone.

Relationships Record: We have no records of past relationships for Mikhail Gorbachev. You may help us to build the dating records for Mikhail Gorbachev!

Facts & Trivia

Mikhail Ranked on the list of most popular World Leader. Also ranked in the elit list of famous people born in Russia. Mikhail Gorbachev celebrates birthday on March 2 of every year.

What was Mikhail Gorbachev known for?

Mikhail Gorbachev was a Soviet politician. Gorbachev served as the last general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1985–91) as well as the last president of the Soviet Union (1990–91). Both as general secretary and as president, Gorbachev supported democratic reforms.

Why did Gorbachev get the Nobel Peace Prize?

The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the 1990 Nobel Peace Prize to Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, president of the Soviet Union, for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community.

What did Mikhail Gorbachev do to change the Soviet Union?

Gorbachev brought perestroika to the Soviet Union’s foreign economic sector with measures that Soviet economists considered bold at that time. His program virtually eliminated the monopoly that the Ministry of Foreign Trade had once held on most trade operations.

Who were the last 5 Russian presidents?

  • Boris Yeltsin (July 10, 1991 — December 31, 1999)
  • Vladimir Putin (May 7, 2000 — May 7, 2008)
  • Dmitry Medvedev (May 7, 2008 — May 7, 2012)
  • Vladimir Putin (May 7, 2012 – Present)

Did Gorbachev end the USSR?

Gorbachev resigned in December 1991 and what was left of the Soviet parliament voted to end itself. Along with the Revolutions of 1989 in the Eastern Bloc, the dissolution of the Soviet Union marked the end of the Cold War.

Key Events

  1. For the 70th anniversary of the October Revolution of 1917—which brought Lenin and the Communist Party to power—Gorbachev produced a speech on "October and Perestroika: The Revolution Continues"..

  2. The proceedings were televised, and for the first time since the 1920s, voting was not unanimous..

  3. They had married as teenagers in 1928, and in keeping with local tradition had initially resided in Sergey's father's house, an adobe-walled hut, before a hut of their own could be built..

  4. Gorbachev's maternal grandfather joined the Communist Party and helped form the village's first kolkhoz (collective farm) in 1929, becoming its chair..

  5. The country was then experiencing the famine of 1930–1933, in which two of Gorbachev's paternal uncles and an aunt died..

  6. Gorbachev was born on 2 March 1931 in the village of Privolnoye, then in the North Caucasus Krai of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Soviet Union..

  7. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (2 March 1931 – 30 August 2022) was a Soviet and Russian politician who served as the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to the country's dissolution in 1991..

  8. Both of Gorbachev's grandfathers were arrested (his maternal in 1934 and his paternal in 1937) and spent time in Gulag labor camps before being released..

  9. After his December 1938 release, Gorbachev's maternal grandfather discussed having been tortured by the secret police, an account that influenced the young boy..

  10. Following on from the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, in June 1941 the German Army invaded the Soviet Union..

  11. That month, the Lithuanian Supreme Soviet ruled the 1940 Soviet annexation of their country to be illegal; in January 1990, Gorbachev visited the republic to encourage it to remain part of the Soviet Union..

  12. German forces occupied Privolnoye for four and a half months in 1942..

  13. The village school was closed during much of the war but re-opened in autumn 1944..

  14. In 1946, he joined the Komsomol, the Soviet political youth organization, becoming leader of his local group and then being elected to the Komsomol committee for the district..

  15. Over the course of five consecutive summers from 1946 onward he returned home to assist his father in operating a combine harvester, during which they sometimes worked 20-hour days..

  16. After Germany was defeated, Gorbachev's parents had their second son, Aleksandr, in 1947; he and Mikhail would be their only children..

  17. In 1948, they harvested over 8,000 centners of grain, a feat for which Sergey was awarded the Order of Lenin and his son the Order of the Red Banner of Labour..

  18. According to his university friend Zdeněk Mlynář, in the early 1950s "Gorbachev, like everyone else at the time, was a Stalinist"..

  19. In June 1950, Gorbachev became a candidate member of the Communist Party..

  20. In the Soviet Union, alcohol consumption had risen steadily between 1950 and 1985..

  21. In 1952, he was appointed a full member of the Communist Party..

  22. After Stalin died in March 1953, Gorbachev and Mlynář joined the crowds massing to see Stalin's body lying in state..

  23. In early 1953, he took an internship at the procurator's office in Molotovskoye district, but was angered by the incompetence and arrogance of those working there..

  24. On 25 September 1953 he and Raisa registered their marriage at Sokolniki Registry Office; and in October moved in together at the Lenin Hills dormitory..

  25. Studying at Moscow State University, he married fellow student Raisa Titarenko in 1953 and received his law degree in 1955..

  26. In his judgment, while Crimea was transferred from Russia to Ukraine in 1954, when both were part of the Soviet Union, the Crimean people had not been asked at the time, whereas in the 2014 referendum they had..

  27. By 1955, his hair was thinning, and by the late 1960s he was bald, revealing a distinctive port-wine stain on the top of his head..

  28. In June 1955, Gorbachev graduated with a distinction; his final paper had been on the advantages of "socialist democracy" (the Soviet political system) over "bourgeois democracy" (liberal democracy)..

  29. In August 1955, Gorbachev started work at the Stavropol regional procurator's office, but disliked the job and used his contacts to get a transfer to work for Komsomol, becoming deputy director of Komsomol's agitation and propaganda department for that region..

  30. Stalin was ultimately succeeded as Soviet leader by Nikita Khrushchev, who denounced Stalin and his cult of personality in a speech given in February 1956, after which he launched a de-Stalinization process throughout Soviet society..

  31. In September 1956, he was promoted First Secretary of the Stavropol city's Komsomol, placing him in charge of it; in April 1958 he was made deputy head of the Komsomol for the entire region..

  32. In January 1957, Raisa gave birth to a daughter, Irina, and in 1958 they moved into two rooms in a communal apartment..

  33. Throughout the 1960s, he struggled against obesity and dieted to control the problem; Doder and Branson characterized him as "stocky but not fat"..

  34. In 1961, Gorbachev pursued a second degree, in agricultural production; he took a correspondence course from the local Stavropol Agricultural Institute, receiving his diploma in 1967..

  35. In March 1961, Gorbachev became First Secretary of the regional Komsomol, in which position he went out of his way to appoint women as city and district leaders..

  36. In 1961, Gorbachev played host to the Italian delegation for the World Youth Festival in Moscow; that October, he also attended the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union..

  37. In January 1963, Gorbachev was promoted to personnel chief for the regional party's agricultural committee, and in September 1966 became First Secretary of the Stavropol City Party Organization ("Gorkom")..

  38. Cleared for travel to Eastern Bloc countries, in 1966 he was part of a delegation which visited East Germany, and in 1969 and 1974 visited Bulgaria..

  39. His wife had also pursued a second degree, attaining a PhD in sociology in 1967 from the Moscow State Pedagogical University; while in Stavropol she too joined the Communist Party..

  40. In August 1968 the Soviet Union led an invasion of Czechoslovakia to put an end to the Prague Spring, a period of political liberalization in the Marxist–Leninist country..

  41. However, in August 1968, he was named Second Secretary of the Stavropol Kraikom, making him the deputy of First Secretary Leonid Yefremov and the second most senior figure in the Stavrapol region..

  42. Gorbachev became close friends with Zdeněk Mlynář, a Czechoslovak student who later became a primary ideologist of the 1968 Prague Spring..

  43. By 1968 he was increasingly frustrated with his job—in large part because Khrushchev's reforms were stalling or being reversed—and he contemplated leaving politics to work in academia..

  44. In 1969, he was elected as a deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and made a member of its Standing Commission for the Protection of the Environment..

  45. In September 1969 he was part of a Soviet delegation sent to Czechoslovakia, where he found the Czechoslovak people largely unwelcoming to them..

  46. The government considered Gorbachev sufficiently reliable that he was sent as part of Soviet delegations to Western Europe; he made five trips there between 1970 and 1977..

  47. He was appointed the First Party Secretary of the Stavropol Regional Committee in 1970, overseeing the construction of the Great Stavropol Canal..

  48. In April 1970, Yefremov was promoted to a higher position in Moscow and Gorbachev succeeded him as the First Secretary of the Stavropol kraikom..

  49. As head of the Stavropol region, he automatically became a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (24th term) in 1971..

  50. In September 1971 he was part of a delegation that traveled to Italy, where they met with representatives of the Italian Communist Party; Gorbachev loved Italian culture but was struck by the poverty and inequality he saw in the country..

  51. For overseeing a record grain harvest in Ipatovsky district, in March 1972 he was awarded the Order of the October Revolution by Brezhnev in a Moscow ceremony..

  52. In 1972, he visited Belgium and the Netherlands, and in 1973 West Germany..

  53. Gorbachev had remained close to his parents; after his father became terminally ill in 1974, Gorbachev traveled to be with him in Privolnoe shortly before his death..

  54. Gorbachev's main task as regional leader was to raise agricultural production levels, a task hampered by severe droughts in 1975 and 1976..

  55. Gorbachev and his wife visited France in 1976 and 1977, on the latter occasion touring the country with a guide from the French Communist Party..

  56. In 1977, the Supreme Soviet appointed Gorbachev to chair the Standing Commission on Youth Affairs due to his experience with mobilizing young people in Komsomol..

  57. He had growing concerns about the country's agricultural management system, coming to regard it as overly centralized and requiring more bottom-up decision making; he raised these points at his first speech at a Central Committee Plenum, given in July 1978..

  58. His daughter, Irina, married fellow student Anatoly Virgansky in April 1978..

  59. In 1978, he returned to Moscow to become a Secretary of the party's Central Committee, and in 1979 joined its governing Politburo (25th term)..

  60. In November 1978, Gorbachev was appointed a Secretary of the Central Committee..

  61. In 1978, Gorbachev was appointed to the Central Committee's Secretariat for Agriculture (25th term), replacing his old friend Kulakov, who had died of a heart attack..

  62. Gorbachev concentrated his attentions on agriculture: the harvests of 1979, 1980, and 1981 were all poor, due largely to weather conditions, and the country had to import increasing quantities of grain..

  63. In December 1979, the Soviets sent the armed forces into neighbouring Afghanistan to support its Soviet-aligned government against Islamist insurgents; Gorbachev privately thought it a mistake..

  64. By the 1980s, drunkenness was a major social problem and Andropov had planned a major campaign to limit alcohol consumption..

  65. By the mid-1980s, when Gorbachev took power, many analysts were arguing that the Soviet Union was declining to the status of a Third World country..

  66. Economic problems remained: by the late 1980s there were still widespread shortages of basic goods, rising inflation, and declining living standards..

  67. US press referred to the presence of "Gorbymania" in Western countries during the late 1980s and early 1990s, as represented by large crowds that turned out to greet his visits, with Time naming him its "Man of the Decade" in the 1980s..

  68. Doder and Branson noted that over the course of the 1980s, his thought underwent a "radical evolution"..

  69. At times he openly supported the government position; in October 1980 he for instance endorsed Soviet calls for Poland's Marxist–Leninist government to crack down on growing internal dissent in that country..

  70. After Brezhnev's death in November 1982, Andropov succeeded him as General Secretary of the Communist Party, the de facto leader in the Soviet Union..

  71. In May 1983, Gorbachev was sent to Canada, where he met Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and spoke to the Canadian Parliament..

  72. In April 1983, Gorbachev delivered the annual speech marking the birthday of the Soviet founder Vladimir Lenin; this required him re-reading many of Lenin's later writings, in which the latter had called for reform in the context of the New Economic Policy of the 1920s, and encouraged Gorbachev's own conviction that reform was needed..

  73. In April 1984, Gorbachev was appointed chair of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Soviet legislature, a largely honorific position..

  74. In February 1984, Andropov died; on his deathbed he indicated his desire that Gorbachev succeed him..

  75. Gorbachev recurrently employed the term perestroika, first used publicly in March 1984..

  76. In the Soviet Union itself, opinion polls indicated that Gorbachev was the most popular politician from 1985 through to late 1989..

  77. Three years after the death of Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev—following the brief tenures of Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko—in 1985, the Politburo elected Gorbachev as general secretary, the de facto leader. .

  78. In June 1985 he signed a US$14 billion five-year trade agreement with the country and in July 1986, he proposed troop reductions along the Soviet-Chinese border, hailing China as "a great socialist country"..

  79. In the buildup to this, Gorbachev sought to improve relations with the US's NATO allies, visiting France in October 1985 to meet with President François Mitterrand..

  80. They agreed to hold a summit in Geneva, Switzerland, in November 1985..

  81. In October 1985, he met with Afghan Marxist leader Babrak Karmal, urging him to acknowledge the lack of widespread public support for his government and pursue a power sharing agreement with the opposition..

  82. In a May 1985 speech given to the Soviet Foreign Ministry—the first time a Soviet leader had directly addressed his country's diplomats—Gorbachev spoke of a "radical restructuring" of foreign policy..

  83. He had risen rapidly since 1985, attaining the role of party secretary in Moscow..

  84. He described Gorbachev as "a true believer—not in the Soviet system as it functioned (or didn't) in 1985 but in its potential to live up to what he deemed its original ideals"..

  85. Speaking in late summer 1985 to the secretaries for economic affairs of the central committees of the East European communist parties, Gorbachev said: "Many of you see the solution to your problems in resorting to market mechanisms in place of direct planning..

  86. On 10 March 1985, Chernenko died..

  87. He would stop to talk to civilians on the street, forbade the display of his portrait at the 1985 Red Square holiday celebrations, and encouraged frank and open discussions at Politburo meetings..

  88. Another of those promoted by Gorbachev was Boris Yeltsin, who was made a Secretary of the Central Committee (26th term) in July 1985..

  89. The Five Year Plan of 1985–1990 was targeted to expand machine building by 50 to 100%..

  90. He served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 and additionally as head of state beginning in 1988, as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 1988 to 1989, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 1989 to 1990 and the only President of the Soviet Union from 1990 to 1991..

  91. However, bootleg liquor production rose considerably, and the reform imposed large costs on the Soviet economy, resulting in losses of up to US$100 billion between 1985 and 1990..

  92. In April 1986, he introduced an agrarian reform which linked salaries to output and allowed collective farms to sell 30% of their produce directly to shops or co-operatives rather than giving it all to the state for distribution..

  93. The summit ended with a joint commitment to avoiding nuclear war and to meet for two further summits: in Washington, DC, in 1986 and in Moscow in 1987..

  94. In April 1986 the Chernobyl disaster occurred..

  95. In December 1986, riots broke out in several Kazakh cities after a Russian was appointed head of the region..

  96. As a result, crime rates fell and life expectancy grew slightly between 1986 and 1987..

  97. To boost agricultural productivity, he merged five ministries and a state committee into a single entity, Agroprom, although by late 1986 he acknowledged this merger as a failure..

  98. Zhores Medvedev thought him a talented orator, in 1986 stating that "Gorbachev is probably the best speaker there has been in the top Party echelons" since Leon Trotsky..

  99. In early 1986, Yeltsin began sniping at Gorbachev in Politburo meetings..

  100. Doder and Branson noted that at the Twenty-Seventh Party Congress in 1986, Gorbachev was seen to be an orthodox Marxist–Leninist; that year, the biographer Zhores Medvedev stated that "Gorbachev is neither a liberal nor a bold reformist"..

  101. In a September 1986 speech, he embraced the idea of reintroducing market economics to the country alongside limited private enterprise, citing Lenin's New Economic Policy as a precedent; he nevertheless stressed that he did not regard this as a return to capitalism..

  102. An agreement was then reached to meet with Reagan in Reykjavík, Iceland, in October 1986..

  103. In January 1986, Gorbachev publicly proposed a three-stage programme for abolishing the world's nuclear weapons by the end of the 20th century..

  104. Following the failures of earlier talks with the US, in February 1987, Gorbachev held a conference in Moscow, titled "For a World without Nuclear Weapons, for Mankind's Survival", which was attended by various international celebrities and politicians..

  105. In December 1987 he announced the withdrawal of 500,000 Soviet troops from Central and Eastern Europe..

  106. In 1987, Crimean Tatars protested in Moscow to demand resettlement in Crimea, the area from which they had been deported on Stalin's orders in 1944..

  107. In December 1987, Gorbachev visited Washington, DC, where he and Reagan signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty..

  108. There was hostility to such compromises from the Soviet military, but following the May 1987 Mathias Rust incident—in which a West German teenager was able to fly undetected from Finland and land in Red Square—Gorbachev fired many senior military figures for incompetence..

  109. In May 1987 Gorbachev visited Romania, where he was appalled by the state of the country, later telling the Politburo that there "human dignity has absolutely no value"..

  110. In April 1987, Gorbachev discussed the issue with US secretary of state George P..

  111. In May 1987, Gorbachev again visited France, and in November 1988 Mitterrand visited him in Moscow..

  112. In March 1987, Thatcher visited Gorbachev in Moscow; despite their ideological differences, they liked one another..

  113. By 1987, the ethos of glasnost had spread through Soviet society: journalists were writing increasingly openly, many economic problems were being publicly revealed, and studies appeared that critically reassessed Soviet history..

  114. In September 1987, the government stopped jamming the signal of the British Broadcasting Corporation and Voice of America..

  115. In August 1987, Gorbachev holidayed in Nizhnyaya Oreanda in Oreanda, Crimea, there writing Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and Our World at the suggestion of US publishers..

  116. In January 1987, Gorbachev attended a Central Committee plenum where he talked about perestroika and democratization while criticizing widespread corruption..

  117. A second US–Soviet summit occurred in Moscow in May–June 1988, which Gorbachev expected to be largely symbolic..

  118. The West German chancellor, Helmut Kohl, had initially offended Gorbachev by comparing him to Nazi propagandist Joseph Goebbels, although he later informally apologized and in October 1988 visited Moscow..

  119. In 1988, India awarded Gorbachev the Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development; in 1990, he was given the Nobel Peace Prize for "his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"..

  120. In March 1988, the magazine Sovetskaya Rossiya published an open letter by the teacher Nina Andreyeva..

  121. By 1988, the Soviet "nationality question" was increasingly pressing..

  122. Gorbachev later considered the campaign to have been an error, and it was terminated in October 1988..

  123. In April 1989 he visited London, lunching with Elizabeth II..

  124. In 1989, he visited East Germany for the fortieth anniversary of its founding; shortly after, in November, the East German government allowed its citizens to cross the Berlin Wall, a decision Gorbachev praised..

  125. That month, the Politburo approved Gorbachev's decision to withdraw combat troops from Afghanistan, although the last troops did not leave until February 1989..

  126. These stoked a number of miners' strikes in 1989..

  127. The new Congress convened in May 1989..

  128. Taubman noted that by 1989 or 1990, Gorbachev had transformed into a social democrat..

  129. Gorbachev declined to intervene militarily when various Eastern Bloc countries abandoned Marxist–Leninist governance in 1989–1992..

  130. In June 1989 Gorbachev then visited Kohl in West Germany..

  131. In August 1989, the Pan-European Picnic, which Otto von Habsburg planned as a test of Gorbachev, resulted in a large mass exodus of East German refugees..

  132. In the Revolutions of 1989, most of the Marxist–Leninist states of Central and Eastern Europe held multi-party elections resulting in regime change..

  133. In 1989, Soviet responsibility for the 1940 Katyn massacre was finally revealed..

  134. In November 1989 he also visited Italy, meeting with Pope John Paul II..

  135. In May 1989 he visited Beijing and there met its leader Deng Xiaoping; Deng shared Gorbachev's belief in economic reform but rejected calls for democratization..

  136. In August 1989, protesters formed the Baltic Way, a human chain across the three countries to symbolize their wish to restore independence..

  137. Problems also emerged in the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic; in April 1989, Soviet troops crushed Georgian pro-independence demonstrations in Tbilisi, resulting in various deaths..

  138. In December 1989, Gorbachev and Bush met at the Malta Summit..

  139. In March and April 1989, elections to the new Congress were held..

  140. By mid-November 1990, much of the press was calling for Gorbachev to resign and predicting civil war..

  141. Ideologically, Gorbachev initially adhered to Marxism–Leninism but moved towards social democracy by the early 1990s. .

  142. He also thought that by 1990, when his domestic popularity was waning, Gorbachev had become "psychologically dependent on being lionized abroad", a trait for which he was criticized in the Soviet Union..

  143. After it ended, it took several years for production to return to previous levels, after which alcohol consumption soared in Russia between 1990 and 1993..

  144. In Russia, he is widely despised for his role in the collapse of the Soviet Union and the ensuing economic collapse in the 1990s..

  145. His support among the intelligentsia was declining, and by the end of 1990 his approval ratings had plummeted..

  146. In October 1990, Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize; he was flattered but acknowledged "mixed feelings" about the accolade..

  147. At the 28th Communist Party Congress in July 1990, hardliners criticized the reformists but Gorbachev was re-elected party leader with the support of three-quarters of delegates and his choice of deputy general secretary, Vladimir Ivashko, was also elected..

  148. He chose this over a public vote because he thought the latter would escalate tensions and feared that he might lose it; a spring 1990 poll nevertheless still showed him as the most popular politician in the country..

  149. Further anti-Armenian violence broke out in Baku in January 1990, followed by the Soviet Army killing about 150 Azeris..

  150. With German reunification in 1990, many observers declared the Cold War over..

  151. In August 1990, Saddam Hussein's Iraqi government invaded Kuwait; Gorbachev endorsed President Bush's condemnation of it..

  152. In May 1990, he visited the US for talks with President Bush; there, he agreed that an independent Germany would have the right to choose its international alliances..

  153. On 9 February 1990 in a phone conversation with James Baker, then the US secretary of state, he set out his position that "a broadening of the NATO zone is not acceptable" to which Baker agreed..

  154. In January 1990, Gorbachev privately agreed to permit East German reunification with West Germany, but rejected the idea that a unified Germany could retain West Germany's NATO membership..

  155. The Russian Supreme Soviet was now out of Gorbachev's control; in June 1990, it declared that in the Russian Republic, its laws took precedence over those of the Soviet central government..

  156. In February 1990, both liberalisers and Marxist–Leninist hardliners intensified their attacks on Gorbachev..

  157. In the 1990 elections for the Russian Supreme Soviet, the Communist Party faced challengers from an alliance of liberalisers known as "Democratic Russia"; the latter did particularly well in urban centers..

  158. Although the next party congress was not scheduled until 1991, Gorbachev convened the 19th Party Conference in its place in June 1988..

  159. General Varennikov, one of those who orchestrated the 1991 coup attempt against Gorbachev, for instance called him "a renegade and traitor to your own people"..

  160. Gorbachev attended Putin's inauguration ceremony in May, the first time he had entered the Kremlin since 1991..

  161. McCauley suggested that by at least June 1991 Gorbachev was a "post-Leninist", having "liberated himself" from Marxism–Leninism..

  162. Lithuanian foreign minister Gabrielius Landsbergis said that Lithuanians would not glorify Gorbachev or forget about the 1991 January Events..

  163. Internally, growing nationalist sentiment threatened to break up the Soviet Union, leading Marxist–Leninist hardliners to launch the unsuccessful August Coup against Gorbachev in 1991..

  164. Other countries were more forthcoming; West Germany had given the Soviets DM60 billion by mid-1991..

  165. Throughout 1991, Gorbachev requested sizable loans from Western countries and Japan, hoping to keep the Soviet economy afloat and ensure the success of perestroika..

  166. As of 31 December 1991, all Soviet institutions that had not been taken over by Russia ceased to function..

  167. Amid growing dissent in the Baltics, especially Lithuania, in January 1991 Gorbachev demanded that the Lithuanian Supreme Council rescind its pro-independence reforms..

  168. Although the Soviet Union had been excluded from the G7, Gorbachev secured an invitation to its London summit in July 1991..

  169. In 1992, he was the first recipient of the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award, and in 1994 was given the Grawemeyer Award by the University of Louisville, Kentucky..

  170. He focused on establishing his International Foundation for Socio-Economic and Political Studies, or "Gorbachev Foundation", launched in March 1992; Yakovlev and Revenko were its first vice presidents..

  171. In 1992, he toured the US in a Forbes private jet to raise money for his foundation..

  172. In 1993, Gorbachev launched Green Cross International, which focused on encouraging sustainable futures, and then the World Political Forum..

  173. It was there that Gorbachev proposed to the Duma a law that would reduce many of the presidential powers established by Yeltsin's 1993 constitution..

  174. After pro-Yeltsin parties did poorly in the 1993 legislative election, Gorbachev called on him to resign..

  175. With his wife's assistance, Gorbachev worked on his memoirs, which were published in Russian in 1995 and in English the following year..

  176. In 1995, he was awarded the Grand-Cross of the Order of Liberty by Portuguese president Mário Soares, and in 1998 the Freedom Award from the National Civil Rights Museum in Memphis, Tennessee..

  177. In 1995, he initiated the World Summit of Nobel Peace Laureates..

  178. In 1995, his foundation held a conference on "The Intelligentsia and Perestroika"..

  179. The Russian presidential elections were scheduled for June 1996, and although his wife and most of his friends urged him not to run, Gorbachev decided to do so..

  180. In 1997, she founded a sub-division of the Gorbachev Foundation known as Raisa Maksimovna's Club to focus on improving women's welfare in Russia..

  181. In December 1999, Yeltsin resigned and was succeeded by his deputy, Vladimir Putin, who then won the March 2000 presidential election..

  182. In 1999, Gorbachev made his first visit to Australia, where he gave a speech to the country's parliament..

  183. He spoke out against the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia because it lacked UN backing, as well as the 2003 invasion of Iraq led by the US..

  184. In 2000, Gorbachev helped form the Russian United Social Democratic Party..

  185. The Soviet Union was behind the United States in many areas of production, but Gorbachev claimed that it would accelerate industrial output to match that of the US by 2000..

  186. In 2000, he was presented with the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement at an awards ceremony at Hampton Court Palace near London..

  187. Although he spoke out against some of the Putin government's actions, Gorbachev also had praise for the new government; in 2002, he said: "I've been in the same skin..

  188. In 2002, Gorbachev was awarded the Charles V Prize by the European Academy of Yuste Foundation..

  189. In June 2002, he participated in a meeting with Putin, who praised the venture, suggesting that a center-left party could be good for Russia and that he would be open to working with it..

  190. In 2002, Gorbachev received the Freedom of the City of Dublin from Dublin City Council..

  191. In 2003, Gorbachev's party merged with the Social Democratic Party to form the Social Democratic Party of Russia—which, however, faced much internal division and failed to gain traction with voters..

  192. Gorbachev, together with Bill Clinton and Sophia Loren, were awarded the 2004 Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children for their recording of Sergei Prokofiev's 1936 Peter and the Wolf for Pentatone..

  193. In June 2004, Gorbachev nevertheless attended Reagan's state funeral, and in 2007 visited New Orleans to see the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina..

  194. Gorbachev resigned as party leader in May 2004 following a disagreement with the party's chairman over the direction taken in the 2003 election campaign..

  195. In 2005, Gorbachev was awarded the Point Alpha Prize for his role in supporting German reunification..

  196. However, in 2006, he expressed his continued belief in Lenin's ideas: "I trusted him then and I still do"..

  197. The party was later banned in 2007 by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation due to its failure to establish local offices with at least 500 members in the majority of Russian regions, which is required by Russian law for a political organization to be listed as a party..

  198. In 2008, there was some press speculation that he was a practicing Christian after he visited the tomb of St Francis of Assisi, to which he publicly clarified that he was an atheist..

  199. In September 2008, Gorbachev and business oligarch Alexander Lebedev announced they would form the Independent Democratic Party of Russia, and in May 2009 Gorbachev announced that the launch was imminent..

  200. Barred by the constitution from serving more than two consecutive terms as president, Putin stood down in 2008 and was succeeded by his chosen successor, Dmitry Medvedev, who reached out to Gorbachev in ways that Putin had not..

  201. In 2009, Gorbachev released Songs for Raisa, an album of Russian romantic ballads, sung by him and accompanied by musician Andrei Makarevich, to raise money for a charity devoted to his late wife..

  202. Gorbachev nevertheless remained critical of Russia's government and criticized the 2011 parliamentary elections as being rigged in favor of the governing party, United Russia, and called for them to be re-held..

  203. In 2011, an eightieth birthday gala for him was held at London's Royal Albert Hall, featuring tributes from Shimon Peres, Lech Wałęsa, Michel Rocard, and Arnold Schwarzenegger..

  204. In April 2011, Gorbachev underwent complex spinal surgery in Germany, at the Munich clinic Schön Klinik München Harlaching..

  205. After Putin announced his intention to run for president in the 2012 election, Gorbachev was opposed to the idea..

  206. On 11 June 2013, it was reported that Gorbachev was hospitalized for a routine examination..

  207. On 22 October 2013, it became known that Gorbachev was undergoing another examination in a German clinic..

  208. In 2014, he defended the Crimean status referendum and Russia's annexation of Crimea that began the Russo-Ukrainian War..

  209. At a November 2014 event marking 25 years since the fall of the Berlin Wall, Gorbachev warned that the ongoing war in Donbas had brought the world to the brink of a new Cold War, and he accused Western powers, particularly the US, of adopting an attitude of "triumphalism" towards Russia..

  210. In December 2014, he said that both sides in the war in Donbas "have been violating the terms of the ceasefire; both sides are guilty of using dangerous types of weapons and violating human rights", adding that Minsk agreements "form the basis for the settlement" of the conflict..

  211. He was also hospitalized in the Central Clinical Hospital on 9 October 2014..

  212. Also in 2014, Gorbachev underwent oral surgery..

  213. Gorbachev was briefly hospitalized in May 2015 as well..

  214. In 2015, Gorbachev ceased his frequent international traveling..

  215. Also in 2016, he underwent surgery to replace his lenses due to cataracts..

  216. In November 2016, Gorbachev had a pacemaker installed at the Moscow Central Clinical Hospital..

  217. In 2016, he said that "Politicians who think that problems and disputes can be solved by using military force—even as a last resort—should be rejected by society, they should clear the political stage." In July 2016, Gorbachev criticized NATO for deploying more troops to Eastern Europe amid escalating tensions between the military alliance and Russia..

  218. According to a 2017 survey carried out by the independent institute Levada Center, 46% of Russian citizens have a negative opinion towards Gorbachev, 30% are indifferent, while only 15% have a positive opinion..

  219. In June 2018, he welcomed the Russia–United States summit in Helsinki between Putin and US president Donald Trump, although in October criticized Trump's threat to withdraw from the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, saying the move "is not the work of a great mind"..

  220. Bush in 2018, a critical partner and friend of his time in office, Gorbachev stated that the work they had both accomplished led directly to the end of the Cold War and the nuclear arms race, and that he "deeply appreciated the attention, kindness and simplicity typical of George, Barbara and their large, friendly family"..

  221. The length of his hospital visits increased in 2019, with Gorbachev hospitalized in December with pneumonia..

  222. In 2020/2021, the Theatre of Nations in Moscow, in collaboration with Latvian director Alvis Hermanis, staged a production called Gorbachev..

  223. At the beginning of 2020, Gorbachev was placed under the continuous supervision of doctors..

  224. On 24 December 2021, Gorbachev said that the United States "grew arrogant and self-confident" after the collapse of the Soviet Union, resulting in "a new empire..

  225. In an interview with Russian news agency TASS on 20 January 2021, Gorbachev said that relations between the United States and Russia are of "great concern", and called on US president Joe Biden to begin talks with the Kremlin to make the two countries' "intentions and actions clearer" and "in order to normalize relations"..

  226. Russian president Vladimir Putin bid an official farewell to Gorbachev on 1 September 2022 during a visit to the Central Clinical Hospital, where he laid flowers at his coffin..

  227. A funeral for Gorbachev was held on 3 September 2022 from 10 a.m. to 12 noon in the Column Hall of the House of Unions..

  228. On 29 August 2022, Gorbachev arrived at the Central Clinical Hospital for another hemodialysis, where he died on 30 August at approximately 10:00 p.m..

  229. Gorbachev's condition deteriorated even further in July 2022 as he developed kidney problems, which led to him being transferred for hemodialysis..

  230. Gorbachev made no personal comment publicly on the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine..

  231. Gorbachev died at the Central Clinical Hospital in Moscow on 30 August 2022, at the age of 91..

  232. Gorbachev died in Moscow in 2022, at the age of 91. .

  233. There is nothing more precious in the world than human lives." At the end of July 2022, Gorbachev's close friend, journalist Alexei Venediktov, said that Gorbachev was very upset when he found out that Putin had launched an invasion of Ukraine..